Karma
Karma is not of one type but of many types. There are 8 main types according to the effect produced. It is called ‘Prakrtibandha’. The original Prakrtis of Karma are eight. Prakrti means nature. Karma has nature of 8 types as follows :
The 8 types of karma
These types of karma can be split equally into destructive and non-destructive karma.
Destructive karmas
mohaniya-karma (delusory):

1.deludes the jiva
2.causes attachment to false beliefs
3.prevents the jiva living a correct life
jnana-avaraniya-karma (knowledge-obscuring):
1.prevents the jiva understanding the truth
2.blocks the jiva's natural omniscience
dars(h)an-avarniya-karma (perception-obscuring):
1.interferes with perception through the senses
antaraya-karma (obstructing):
1.obstructs the energy of the jiva
2.blocks the doing of good acts that the jiva wants to do
Non-destructive karmas
vedaniya-karma (feeling-producing):
1.determines whether the jiva has pleasant or unpleasant experiences
nama-karma (physique-determining): 1.determines the type of rebirth
2.determines the physical characteristics of the new life
3.determines the spiritual potential of the new life
ayu-karma (life-span-determining):
1.determines the duration of a being's life (within the limits of the species into which the jiva is reborn)
gotra-karma (status-determining):
1.determines the status of a being within its species
1. Jnanavaraniya Karma (Karma that obstructs knowledge):
The matter that obstructs the quality - knowledge of the soul is called jnanavaraniya karma.
If there is a bandage over the eye, nothing can be seen even if the eye is there. There is infinite knowledge in the soul, but as long as this karma remains an obstruction over the soul, the soul cannot obtain knowledge. This karma becomes an obstruction in obtaining knowledge. This karma is of 5 types.
How is this Karma formed ?
Jnanavaraniya karma is formed in these six ways;
(1) by censuring knowledge and the learned.
(2) by showing hatred towards knowledge and the learned.
(3) by insulting knowledge and the learned.
(4) by forgetting the obligations of the learned.
(5) by quarrelling with the learned without any cause and
(6) by causing obstacles to the learner and the learned.
The Fruits of Karma
On account of this Jnanavaraniya karma, the soul become deaf, dumb, or of retarded mind. It may not have pure intellect and may not acquire the knowledge of the soul. Such are the fruits of this karma.
2. Darsanavaraniya karma (karma which obscures cognition) :
The matter which obscures the quality of infinte cognition of the soul, is called ‘Darsana-varaniya-karma’.
One cannot enter the area guarded by a watchman. Similiarly this karma obscures the cognition of the soul. This karma has nine types.
How is this karma formed ?
Darsanavaraniya karma is formed by censuring virtuous people, by showing contempt towards the virtuous and learned people, by being ungrateful, by doubting the word of god and by creating obstructions in religious practices.
The Fruits of this Karma
Because of darsanavarniya karma the soul cannot see properly, can become blind, may be a victim of insomnia, may sleep while sitting or moving, cannot see god, etc. These are the fruits of this karma.
3. Vedaniya Karma :
The matter which makes you experience happiness and unhappiness, is called ‘Vedaniya karma’. This karma resembles the edge of a sword. It honey is applies to the edge of a sword and if somebody licks it, he experiences sweetness in the beginning but later on feels pain and misery on account of the cut caused by the edge. If one licks the edge of a sword to which opium is applied, he experiences bitterness first and pain later on.
One experiences happiness and unhappiness also by this karma. This Karma has two varieties.
How is this Karma formed ?
Satavedaniya karma is accumulated by showing mercy to all living beings, by sharing the unhappiness of unhappy people and reducing their misery. Asatavendaniya karma is accmulated by troubling and harming living beings and by becoming happy in their misery.
The Fruits of this Karma
Satavendaniya karma gives pleasing and likeable enjoyments.
Asatavedaniya karma gives miseries like poverty, disease, etc. in return. 4. Mohaniya Karma :
The matter which makes the soul passionate and deluded is called ‘Mohaniya karma’.
A man taking narcotics cannot have any sort of discretion. Similiarly on account of this karma, the soul forgets itself and becomes attached to transient enjoyments.This karma has 28 varieties.
How is this Karma formed ?
Mohaniya karma is accumulated by outburst of too much anger, pride, deceit and greed; by practising irreligion in the name of religion, by following bad conduct, by committing adultery etc.
Fruits of this Karma
Because of this karma, the soul becomes deluded, excessively attached and passionate. It becomes jealous, quarrelsome, deceitful and hypocritial. It becomes frightened without reason or with reason and full of sorrow, etc.
5. Ayusya Karma :
The matter which creates life is called Ayusya Karma. This karma resembles a prison. A man imprisoned in a jail cannot go or come according to his desire. Similiarly, the soul remains imprisoned in the prison in the form of the body on account of this karma.
This karma has 4 types.
How is this Karma formed ?
1. By taking those professions wherein living beings are killed every moment; 2. By hoarding; 3. By meat-eating; 4. A soul goes to the hell by killing a living being having 5. Senses.
2. A living being goes to the tiryanca birth i.e. gets the birth of an animal or a bird by 1. telling lies deceitfully 2. by treachery 3. by telling lies; 4. by using wrong scales.
3. A living being, who is (1) naturally free from fraud, (2) who is courteous by nature, (3) merciful and free from jealousy, gets the birth of a human being.
4. A living being gets the birth of a god i.e. he becomes a god, a goddess, an Indra or an Indrani by 1. observing self-control after initiation, 2. by observing the 12 vows as a house holder, 3. by performing penances and 4. by enduring pain with quanimity.
The fruits of this karma
With the accmulation of karma as said above, the soul enjoys various kinds of fruits.
6. Namakarma :
That matter (pudgala) on account of which various materials of life become available, is called ‘Namakaram’. This karma is like a painter. Just as a painter paints various types of pictures with a pencil or a brush, so the soul assumes bodies of various forms and shapes.This karma has 103 varieties.
How is this Karma formed ?
Good ‘Namakarmas’ are accmulated by keeping the mind, speech and body straightforward and pure and by behaving with love and friendliness with all. Bad ‘namakarmas’ are formed by keeping the mind, words and body crooked and by quarrelling.
The Fruits of this Karma
By good namakarma, one gets desired enjoyments, fame, beauty, happiness, health, etc.
By bad namakarma, scarcity, bad feelings and pain are suffered. It also results in ill-fame, diseases, etc.
7. Gotra Karma :
This Karma has two types - higher and lower.
That pudgala (matter) by the power of which, one attains to a higher family is higher ‘gotra karma’ and that pudgala (matter) by the power of which, one is condemned to a lower family is called lower ‘gotra karma’.
This Karma is like a potter. Just as a potter makes utensils of various types from the same lump of clay, similarly only one body (i.e. the same body) has experience of various types on account of this karma.
How is this Karma formed ?
Lower ‘Gotra Karma’ is bound by showing pride and vanity in any one or more of these eight - caste, fruit, stength, beauty, penances, knowledge, gain and lordliness.
By not showing pride in all these things, higher ‘Gotra Karma’ is formed.
The furits of this Karma are as follows :
By higher ‘Gotra Karma’ one reaps good things. He gets birth in a happy, properous and cultured family. He acquires beauty, strength and wealth. By lower ‘Gotra Karma’, he gets the opposite of the above, viz., he gets birth in a lower caste and family. He also suffers poverty, disease, ugliness etc.
8. Antaraya Karma :
The pudgala (matter) creating obstruction to active power is called ‘Antaraya’ (Obstacle) Karma’. This Karma is like a treasurer. The institution or the owner may have sanctioned the amount to be given, but that amount can be collected only when the treasurer gives it. Similarly, the soul has infinite powers and qualities, but they are obstructed by this karma. This karma has 5 varieties.
How is this Karma formed ?
This Antaraya Karma is bound (1) by becoming an obstacle, when somebody is giving charitable gifts, (2) by coming in the way of somebody’s gain; (3) by stopping somebody’s food and drink; and (4) by stopping somebody from performance of religious mediation, etc.
The fruits of this karma
On account of this Karma, the person cannot give charitable gifts, cannot make gains, cannot enjoy various enjoyments and cannot worship god.
As long as the soul is concerned and connected with these eight karmas and their sub-divisions, the rebirth connected with these eight karmas and their sub-divisions, the rebirth of the soul goes on.
Rebirth means constant movement of the cycle of life and death.
"Liberation/Emancipation is possible."
Man can free his soul from karmas also. He can make his soul pure and unselfish by performing religious practices like penances, renunciation detachment, knowledge, meditation, chanting of mantras, etc. The soul can be liberated and enlightenced by destroying all karmas through ardent and severe religious practices.
When the soul destroys all karmas, it becomes god.

८ कर्म

कर्म से तात्पर्य है -कार्य करना ।प्रत्येक मनुष्य जीवन में जन्म से लेकर मृत्यु पर्यन्त कुछ न कुछ कार्य करता रहता है ,उसे कर्म कहते है। जो जीव को परतंत्र करता है अथवा जिसके द्वारा जीव परतंत्र किया जाता है उसे कर्म कहते है।कर्म के आठ प्रकार है:-
ज्ञानावरणी कर्म , दर्शनावरणी कर्म ,वेदनीय कर्म,मोहनीय कर्म,आयु कर्म,नामकर्म,गोत्र कर्म

1.ज्ञानावरणी कर्म :-जो आत्मा के ज्ञान गुण को प्रकट न होने दे ,उसे ज्ञानावरणी कर्म कहते है।जैसे देव प्रतिमा के मुख पर ढका हुआ वस्त्र देव प्रतिमा का ज्ञान नहीं होने देता ।
2.दर्शनावरणी कर्म :- जो आत्मा के दर्शन गुण को प्रकट न होने दे ,उसे दर्शनावरणी कर्म कहते है।जैसे द्वारपाल राजा के दर्शन नहीं होने देता है।
3.वेदनीय कर्म :- जो सुख दुःख का वेदन कराता हो ,उसे वेदनीय कर्म कहते है।जैसे मधुलिप्त तलवार |
4.मोहनीय कर्म :-जो आत्मा के सम्यक्त्व और चारित्र गुण का घात करता है ,उसे मोहनीय कर्म कहते है।जैसे मदिरा पान करने से शराबी का विवेक नष्ट हो जाता है।
5.आयु कर्म:-जो मनुष्य -तिर्यंच के शरीर में रोककर रखता है ,उसे आयु कर्म कहते है।जैसे पैर में लगी हुई बेडी
6. नाम कर्म:-जो अनेक प्रकार के शरीर की रचना करता है ,उसे नामकर्म कहते है।जैसे चित्रकार अनेक प्रकार के चित्र बनाता है।
7.गोत्र कर्म :-लोक व्यवहार सम्बन्धी आचरण को गोत्र माना गया है।जिस कुल में लोक पूज्य आचरण की परंपरा है उसे ,उच्च गोत्र कहते है तथा जिसमे लोक निन्दित आचरण की परंपरा है उसे नीच गोत्र कहते है।इन कुलों में जन्म दिलाने वाला कर्म गोत्र कर्म कहलाता है।
8.अन्तराय कर्म :- अन्तराय कर्म:-जो कर्म विघ्न डालता है उसे अन्तराय कर्म कहते है।इस कर्म के कारण आत्म शक्ति में अवरोध उत्पन्न होता है ।अनुकूल साधनों और आंतरिक इच्छा के होने पर भी जीव इस कर्म के कारण अपनी मनोभावना पूर्ण नहीं कर पाता।