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9 Padarth(Element)
Jain philosophy can be described in various ways, but the most acceptable tradition is to describe it in terms of the Nav Padhrtha ( Elements ) or nine fundamentals. They are:
Jiva (soul)
Ajiva (non-living matter)
Punya (results of good deeds)
Pap (results of bad deeds)
Asrava (influx of karmas)
Samvar (stoppage of karmas)
Bandh (bondage of karmas)
Nirjara (eradication of karmas)
Moksha (liberation)
Now, let us use a simple analogy to illustrate these Padhrtha ( Elements ). There lived a family in a farm house. They were enjoying the fresh cool breeze coming through the open doors and windows. The weather suddenly changed, and a terrible dust storm set in. Realizing it was a bad storm, they got up to close the doors and windows. By the time they could close all the doors and windows, lots of dust had entered the house. After closing the doors and the windows, they started clearing the dust that had come in to make the house clean.
We can interpret this simple illustration in terms of Nav-Padhrtha ( Elements ) as follows:
Jivas are represented by the people.
Ajiva is represented by the house.
Punya is represented by enjoyment resulting from the nice cool breeze.
Pap is represented by discomfort resulting from the sand storm, which brought dust into the house.
Asrava is represented by the influx of dust through the doors and windows of the house which is similar to the influx of karman particles to the soul.
Bandh is represented by the accumulation of dust in the house, which is similar to bondage of karman particles to the soul.
Samvar is represented by the closing of the doors and windows to stop the dust from coming into the house, which is similar to the stoppage of influx of karman particles to the soul.
Nirjara is represented by the cleaning up of accumulated dust from the house, which is similar to shedding accumulated karmic particles from the soul.
Moksha is represented by the cleaned house, which is similar to the shedding off all karmic particles from the soul.
1. Jiva: All living beings are called Jivas. jivas have a consciousness known as the soul, which is also called the atma (soul -chetan). The soul and body are two different entities. The soul cannot be reproduced. It is described as a sort of energy which is indestructible, invisible, and shapeless. Jainism divides jivas into five categories ranging from one-sensed beings to five-sensed beings. The body is merely a home for the soul. At the time of death, the soul leaves the body to occupy a new one. Tirthankaras have said that the soul has an infinite capacity to know and perceive. This capacity of the soul is not experienced in its present state because of accumulated karmas.
2. Ajiva: Anything that does not have an soul is called ajiva. Ajiva does not have consciousness. Jainism divides ajiva in five broad categories: dharmastikay (medium of motion), adharmastikay (medium of rest), akashastikay (space), pudgalastikay (matter), and kala (time).
3. Punya: By undertaking wholesome activities, we acquire punya or good karmas. Some such activities are providing food or other items to the needy people, doing charity work, propagating religion, etc. When punya matures, it brings forth comfort and happiness.
4. Pap: By undertaking bad activities, we incur pap or bad karmas. Some such activities are being cruel or violent, showing disrespect to parents or teachers, being angry or greedy and showing arrogance or indulging in deceit. When pap matures, it brings forth suffering, misery, and unhappiness.
5. Asrava: The influx of karman particles to the soul is known as asrava. It is caused by wrong belief, vowlessness (observing no vows), passions, negligence, and psychophysical activities. Such and influx of karmas is facilitated by mental, verbal, or physical activities.
6. Samvar: This is the process by which the influx of karman particles is stopped. This is achieved by observing samiti (carefulness), gupti (control), ten fold yati-dharma (Monkshood), and contemplating on the twelve bhavanas (mental reflections), and parishaha (suffering).
7. Bandh: This refers to the actual binding of karman particles to the soul. Bandh occurs when we react any situation with a sense of attachment or aversion.
8. Nirjara: The process through which we shed karmas is called nirjara. Karmas can be shed either by passivity or active efforts. When we passively wait for karmas to mature and to give their results in due time, it is called Akam Nirjara. On the other side, if we put active efforts for karmas to mature earlier than supposed to be, it is called Sakam Nirjara. Sakam Nirjara can be achieved by performing penance, regretting, asking for forgiveness for the discomfort we might have caused to someone, or meditation, etc.
9. Moksha: If we rid ourselves of all karmas, we will attain moksha or liberation.
१. जीव :-जिसमे चेतना हो ,सुख-दुःख आदि के अनुभवन की क्षमता हो उसे जीव कहते है। जिसमे ज्ञान ,दर्शन ,रूप भाव ,प्राण और इन्द्रिय ,बल,आयु रूप द्रव्य प्राण पाए जाते है वे जीव है।
२.अजीव-चेतना रहित पदार्थ ।
3.आस्रव :-कर्म आगमन का द्वार ।राग द्वेष आदि भावों के कारण आत्म प्रदेशों में कर्मों का आना आस्रव है ।इसके २ भेद है भाव आस्रव और द्रव्य आस्रव ।
आत्मा के जिन भावों से कर्म आते है उन भावों को भाव आस्रव कहते है और पुदगल माय कर्म परमाणुओं के आने को द्रव्य आस्रव कहते है।
4.बंध :-आये हुए कर्मों का आत्मा के साथ एकमेक हो जाना ।इसके भी २ भेद है-भाव बंध और द्रव्य बंध ।
आत्मा के जिन परिणामो से कर्म बंध होता है वह भवबंध है और कर्म परमाणुओं का आत्मा के प्रदेशों मे दूध पानी के सामान एक मेक हो जाना द्रव्य बंध है।
5.संवर -आस्रव का निरोध ।आते हुए कर्मों का रुक जाना संवर है इसके भी २ भेद है -भावसम्वर और द्रव्य संवर ।
जिन समिति ,गुप्ती आदि भावों से कर्म रुक जाते है वह भाव संवर है और पुद्गलमय कर्मों का आगमन रुक जाना द्रव्य संवर है।
6.निर्जरा :- कर्मों का आंशिक रूप से झड़ना ।आत्मा के साथ बंधे हुए कर्मों का एक देश क्षय होना निर्जरा है।इसके भी २ भेद है भाव निर्जरा और द्रव्य निर्जरा ।
आत्मा के तपश्चरण आदि भावों से कर्म झड़ते है वे परिणाम भाव निर्जरा है और पुद्गलिक कर्मों का एक देश क्षय होना द्रव्य निर्जरा है।
7.मोक्ष :-कर्मों का पूर्ण रूप से झड़ना ।सम्पूर्ण कर्मों का आत्मा से छुट जाना मोक्ष है।इसके भी २ भेद है -आत्मा के जिन भावों से सम्पूर्ण कर्म अलग होते है वह भाव मोक्ष है और सम्पूर्ण कर्मों का आत्मा से छुट जाना द्रव्य मोक्ष है।
8.पुण्य -जो आत्मा को पवित्र करे ।
9.पाप-जो आत्मा को पतित करे।